Georgia Travel Information

Mother Earth Travel > Country Index > Georgia > Map Economy History

Information about the Nature Reserves in Georgia.

Facts About Georgia

Background: Georgia was absorbed into the Russian Empire in the 19th century. Independent for three years (1918-1921) following the Russian revolution, it was forcibly incorporated into the USSR until the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991. Russian troops remain garrisoned at four military bases and as peacekeepers in the separatist regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia (but are scheduled to withdraw from two of the bases by July 2001). Despite a badly degraded transportation network - brought on by ethnic conflict, criminal activities, and fuel shortages - the country continues to move toward a market economy and greater integration with Western institutions.
Government type: republic
Capital: T'bilisi
Currency: 1 lari (GEL) = 100 tetri

Geography of Georgia

Location: Southwestern Asia, bordering the Black Sea, between Turkey and Russia
Geographic coordinates: 42 00 N, 43 30 E
total: 69,700 sq km
land: 69,700 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Land boundaries:
total: 1,461 km
border countries: Armenia 164 km, Azerbaijan 322 km, Russia 723 km, Turkey 252 km
Coastline: 310 km
Climate: warm and pleasant; Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast
Terrain: largely mountainous with Great Caucasus Mountains in the north and Lesser Caucasus Mountains in the south; Kolkhet'is Dablobi (Kolkhida Lowland) opens to the Black Sea in the west; Mtkvari River Basin in the east; good soils in river valley flood plains, foothills of Kolkhida Lowland
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
highest point: Mt'a Mqinvartsveri (Gora Kazbek) 5,048 m
Natural resources: forests, hydropower, manganese deposits, iron ore, copper, minor coal and oil deposits; coastal climate and soils allow for important tea and citrus growth
Land use:
arable land: 9%
permanent crops: 4%
permanent pastures: 25%
forests and woodland: 34%
other: 28% (1993 est.)
Irrigated land: 4,000 sq km (1993 est.)
Natural hazards: earthquakes
Environment - current issues: air pollution, particularly in Rust'avi; heavy pollution of Mtkvari River and the Black Sea; inadequate supplies of potable water; soil pollution from toxic chemicals.
Environment - international agreements:
party to:  Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note: strategically located east of the Black Sea; Georgia controls much of the Caucasus Mountains and the routes through them.

More Geography

People of Georgia

Population: 4,677,401 (July 2005 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years:  19.59% 
15-64 years:  67.91%
65 years and over:  12.5%
Population growth rate: -0.59% 
Birth rate: 11.18 births/1,000 population 
Death rate: 14.58 deaths/1,000 population 
Net migration rate: -2.48 migrant(s)/1,000 population 
Infant mortality rate: 52.37 deaths/1,000 live births 
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:  64.57 years
male:  61.04 years
female:  68.28 years
Total fertility rate: 1.45 children born/woman 
noun: Georgian(s)
adjective: Georgian
Ethnic groups: Georgian 70.1%, Armenian 8.1%, Russian 6.3%, Azeri 5.7%, Ossetian 3%, Abkhaz 1.8%, other 5%
Religions: Georgian Orthodox 65%, Muslim 11%, Russian Orthodox 10%, Armenian Apostolic 8%, unknown 6%
Languages: Georgian 71% (official), Russian 9%, Armenian 7%, Azeri 6%, other 7%
note: Abkhaz (official in Abkhazia)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 100%
female: 98% (1989 est.)

SOURCE: The World Factbook

Mother Earth Travel > Country Index > Georgia > Map Economy History