According to archaeological studies initiated in the 1920s, human activity
on Hong Kong dates back over five millennia. Excavated Neolithic artifacts
suggest an influence from northern Chinese Stone-Age cultures, including the
Longshan. The territory was settled by Han Chinese during the seventh
century, A.D., evidenced by the discovery of an ancient tomb at Lei Cheung
Uk in Kowloon. The first major migration from northern China to Hong Kong
occurred during the Ching Dynasty (960-1279). The British East India Company
made the first successful sea venture to China in 1699, and Hong Kong's
trade with British merchants developed rapidly soon after. After the Chinese
defeat in the First Opium War (1839-42), Hong Kong was ceded to Britain in
1842 under the Treaty of Nanking. Britain was granted a perpetual lease on
the Kowloon Peninsula under the 1860 Convention of Beijing, which formally
ended hostilities in the Second Opium War (1856-58). The United Kingdom,
concerned that Hong Kong could not be defended unless surrounding areas were
also under British control, executed a 99-year lease of the New Territories
in 1898, significantly expanding the size of the Hong Kong colony.
In the late 19th century and early 20th centuries, Hong Kong developed as a warehousing and distribution center for U.K. trade with southern China. After the end of World War II and the communist takeover of Mainland China in 1949, hundreds of thousands of people emigrated from China to Hong Kong. This helped Hong Kong become an economic success and a manufacturing, commercial, and tourism center. High life expectancy, literacy, per capita income, and other socioeconomic measures attest to Hong Kong's achievements over the last four decades.
On July 1, 1997, China resumed the exercise of sovereignty over Hong Kong, ending more than 150 years of British colonial control. Hong Kong is a Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China with a high degree of autonomy in all matters except foreign and defense affairs. According to the Sino-British Joint Declaration (1984) and the Basic Law--Hong Kong's mini-constitution--for 50 years after reversion Hong Kong will retain its political, economic, and judicial systems and unique way of life and continue to participate in international agreements and organizations under the name, "Hong Kong, China."
SOURCE: U.S. Department of State
Mother Earth Travel > Country Index > Hong Kong > Map Economy History