Luxembourg Travel Information

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Facts About Luxembourg

Background: Founded in 963, Luxembourg became a grand duchy in 1815 and an independent state under the Netherlands. It lost more than half of its territory to Belgium in 1839, but gained a larger measure of autonomy. Full independence was attained in 1867. Overrun by Germany in both World Wars, it ended its neutrality in 1948 when it entered into the Benelux Customs Union and when it joined NATO the following year. In 1957, Luxembourg became one of the six founding countries of the European Economic Community (later the European Union) and in 1999 it joined the euro currency area.
Government type: constitutional monarchy
Capital: Luxembourg
Currency: Luxembourg franc (LUF); euro (EUR)

Geography of Luxembourg

Location: Western Europe, between France and Germany
Geographic coordinates: 49 45 N, 6 10 E
Area:
total: 2,586 sq km
land: 2,586 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Land boundaries:
total: 359 km
border countries: Belgium 148 km, France 73 km, Germany 138 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Climate: modified continental with mild winters, cool summers
Terrain: mostly gently rolling uplands with broad, shallow valleys; uplands to slightly mountainous in the north; steep slope down to Moselle flood plain in the southeast
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Moselle River 133 m
highest point: Burgplatz 559 m
Natural resources: iron ore (no longer exploited), arable land
Land use:
arable land:  24%
permanent crops:  1%
permanent pastures:  20%
forests and woodland:  35%
other:  20%
Irrigated land: 10 sq km (including Belgium) (1993 est.)
Environment - current issues: air and water pollution in urban areas, soil pollution of farmland
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Environmental Modification
Geography - note: landlocked; the only Grand Duchy in the world, it is the smallest of the European Union member states

People of Luxembourg

The language of Luxembourg is Luxembourgish, a blend of old German and Frankish elements. The official language of the civil service, law, and parliament is French, although criminal and legal debates are conducted partly in Luxembourgish and police case files are recorded in German. German is the primary language of the press. French and German are taught in the schools, with German spoken mainly at the primary level and French at the secondary level.

Population: 468,571 (July 2005 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years:  18.91%
15-64 years:  67.03%
65 years and over:  14.06% 
Population growth rate: 1.26% 
Birth rate: 12.25 births/1,000 population 
Death rate: 8.88 deaths/1,000 population 
Net migration rate: 9.26 migrant(s)/1,000 population 
Infant mortality rate: 4.77 deaths/1,000 live births 
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:  77.3 years
male:  74.02 years
female:  80.8 years
Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman 
Nationality:
noun: Luxembourger(s)
adjective: Luxembourg
Ethnic groups: Celtic base (with French and German blend), Portuguese, Italian, Slavs (from Montenegro, Albania, and Kososvo) and European (guest and resident workers)
Religions: the greatest preponderance of the population is Roman Catholic with a very few Protestants, Jews, and Muslims
note:  1979 legislation forbids the collection of religious statistics
Languages: Luxembourgish (national language), German (administrative language), French (administrative language)
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100% (2000 est.)

SOURCES: The World Factbook, U.S. Department of State

Mother Earth Travel > Country Index > Luxembourg > Map Economy