|The far East of the Peninsula of Yucatán, to
the South of the Mexican Republic is surrounded by the Caribbean sea and
is known as the Mayan Coast, given this pre-Hispanic civilisation's
influence all across the area, from Punta Brava to Punta Allen. The north
side of the coast boasts an amazing tourist infrastructure and impressive
development. The south, on the other hand, is home to many different small
picturesque villages surrounded by unspoilt beaches, where the Gran
Arrecife Maya is to be found, the second largest reef in the world. The
south is famous for its forest, with exotic vegetation and great variety
of animal species. It is also famous for its underground rivers, caves and
The civilisation which originally inhabited this peninsula was the Mayan civilisation, very advanced as regards the sciences of the Earth and skies, famous for the precision of their calculations and the complexity of their religious rites. In the post-classical period, from the year 1,000 to approximately the year 1,500, the peninsula was an important commercial and religious centre. Tulum was then a fortress on the Caribbean shores. Playa del Carmen was then known as Xaman-Ha, and what is now Xcaret was known as Puerto Pole. The most important city was Cobá, with a population of 50,000 inhabitants.
With the arrival of the Spaniards in 1519, the main Mayan cities, such as Chichen Itza and Uxmal had already been abandoned, what with the wars and conquests of other peoples, the harsh climate and the dangers of the forest, together with the frequent threat of hurricanes, which had caused the civilisation almost to disappear. Xel-Ha went down in history as the first European settlement. However, during the Colonial period the growth of the population was not made easy, given the proximity of the open sea and the pirate attacks. These attacks made it difficult to reach the land, and even when that obstacle was overcome, the forest posed many more difficulties and dangers. This is the main reason why the peninsula was unknown for so long.
In 1967 the Mexican Government recognised the importance of the tourist industry as an active ingredient of the country's economy, and Cancun was one of the places to become a firm candidate for foreign investment and the development of a hotel and entertainment infrastructure, given that its natural beauty was an obvious temptation for any traveller. The first hotels that were built in the 70s were the Palacio Maya and Club Med, both of which developed a great reputation.
Cancun is still an important tourist destination today, and up until the 90s many new hotels were built, as well as American-style shopping malls and all the entertainment facilities it now has to offer.
Cancun is now divided into three areas: Ciudad de Cancun, with a population of 300,000 and a simple and straightforward infrastructure; the ecological reserve, with its incredible lakes, forests and mangrove marshland, and the Zona Hotelera, an island where most of the hotels and shopping malls are to be found. There are two new projects under development, including a tourist sea resort called Puerto Cancun and another project known as Malecón Cancun, covering some 170 acres of land.
Cancun has more than 25,000 hotel rooms to offer, 200 restaurants and several hundred shops. There are roads leading to the forest, making it easy to get to in most cases.
Cancun has many different faces which come together to offer the natural beauty of what is truly a Caribbean paradise, the forest, and the comfort of five star, Gran Turismo and Categoría especial hotels, all in the setting of what was one of the most advanced and intelligent civilisations in the old world.