|Before you get confused, it is a good idea to
explain that Donostia is Basque for San Sebastian. Euskera (Basque) is a
language whose origins are unknown. It is spoken by 35% of donostiarras
(San Sebastian's residents), and is one of the two official languages of
Euskadi (the Basque Country). The other is Castellano (Castilian Spanish).
For this reason nearly all signs in the Basque Country are in both
Although the Basque language is ancient, Donostia is less so. Sancho el Mayor (called Sancho el Fuerte-Sancho the Strong) founded the city of San Sebastian around 1180 in what is today the Parte Vieja (historical quarter). The city's unique geographical situation, an isthmus joining the city centre with Monte Urgull (Mount Urgull), the bahía de la Concha (curved bay) and the outlet of the Río Urumea (Urumea River), made it ideal as a military stronghold with a port. The city is surrounded by a wall for this very reason. The city has seen several wars, and experienced many sieges during the 15th and 16th centuries. One of the most notable wars took place in the 18th century between the English and the French. From 1719 to 1721, San Sebastian was occupied by the French, who finally withdrew after the signing of the Paz de la Haya (The Hague peace treaty).
From that time until 1808 Donostia enjoyed relative peace until the occupation by Napoleonic troops. August 31st 1813 was a key date. With the French occupying the walled city, Anglo-Portuguese troops with their intense barrage against the city caused a huge explosion and a great fire to sweep through it, reducing it to ashes. The citizens took refuge in Zubieta and made the decision to rebuild the city, complete with its walls. The population at this time was around 2,500.
In the 19th century the city was again the scene of war, this time the Carlist wars. Even as these bellicose activities were occurring, the city prospered. In 1863 Donostia was named permanent capital of the province of Gipuzkoa. This brought about a change in the city's role, and was the cause of the walls eventually being demolished. Controversy, ever present in this area, centred around the questions of whether to demolish the walls, or construct a broad main road linking the historical quarter and the new city centre. New development began with the Ensanche Cortázar, demolishing the walls and extending the city towards the centre and Gros district.
Towards the end of the 19th century, with the royal court of Madrid taking up summer residence in Donostia at the Palacio de Miramar (Miramar Palace), the city became a popular tourist destination and spa resort. A casino was built in 1887 in what is now the Ayuntamiento (City Hall), attracting Europe's upper classes. The city reached its peak during the First World War, known as the Belle Époque. While the rest of Europe was at war, Donostia became the most cosmopolitan city in Europe. Examples of the splendour of the era are the Ayuntamiento (City Hall) and the Hotel de Londres.
The Belle Époque came to an end with the arrival of the dictatorship of the Spanish general Primero de Rivera who outlawed gambling. The Spanish Civil War, intense in the Basque Country, nevertheless did not cause great damage to Donostia. In an attempt to stress the Spanishness of the city, General Franco spent every summer in Donostia in the Palacio de Aiete (Aiete Palace) until his death. During this time, nationalist feelings grew in Basque society.
The arrival of democracy in Spain radically changed society. The transition from dictatorship to democracy, and the first years of democracy, were intensely felt in Donostia. Even today you feel the impact of political conflict on everyday life. Nevertheless, Donostia is generally a peaceful city.
The physical nature of the city has changed from the days when it was a walled military stronghold. The Ensanche extended the city towards the centre, and reclaimed land from the sea (districts of Gros and El Antiguo) and the river (Amara). In recent years, the city has further expanded in the Antiguo, Intxaurrondo and Aiete districts. There are no exceedingly old buildings because of sacking and fires that the city has suffered through the ages. Nowadays the population is around 180,000.