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Background: Strategically important Gibraltar was ceded to the United Kingdom by Spain in the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht; the British garrison was formally declared a colony in 1830. In a 1967 referendum, Gibraltarians ignored Spanish pressure and voted overwhelmingly to remain a British dependency.
Dependency status: overseas territory of the United Kingdom
Capital: Gibraltar
Currency: 1 Gibraltar pound = 100 pence

Geography of Gibraltar

Location: Southwestern Europe, bordering the Strait of Gibraltar, which links the Mediterranean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, on the southern coast of Spain
Geographic coordinates: 36 11 N, 5 22 W
total: 6.5 sq. km
land: 6.5 sq. km
water: 0 sq. km
Land boundaries:
total: 1.2 km
border countries: Spain 1.2 km
Coastline: 12 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 3 nm
Climate: Mediterranean with mild winters and warm summers
Terrain: a narrow coastal lowland borders the Rock of Gibraltar
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Rock of Gibraltar 426 m
Natural resources: NEGL
Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100% (1993 est.)
Environment – current issues: limited natural freshwater resources; large concrete or natural rock water catchments collect rainwater.
Geography – note: strategic location on Strait of Gibraltar that links the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea

People of Gibraltar

Population: 27,884 (July 2005 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years:  18.73%
15-64 years:  66.33%
65 years and over:  14.94%
Population growth rate: 0.24%
Birth rate: 11.25 births/1,000 population 
Death rate: 8.82 deaths/1,000 population 
Net migration rate: NEGL migrant(s)/1,000 population 
Infant mortality rate: 5.49 deaths/1,000 live births 
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:  79.09 years
male:  76.23 years
female:  82.1 years 
Total fertility rate: 1.64 children born/woman 
noun: Gibraltarian(s)
adjective: Gibraltar
Ethnic groups: Italian, English, Maltese, Portuguese, Spanish
Religions: Roman Catholic 76.9%, Church of England 6.9%, Muslim 6.9%, Jewish 2.3%, none or other 7% (1991)
Languages: English (used in schools and for official purposes), Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Russian
Literacy: total population: above 80%

Gibraltar Economy

Economy – overview: Gibraltar benefits from an extensive shipping trade, offshore banking, and its position as an international conference center. The British military presence has been sharply reduced and now contributes about 11% to the local economy. The financial sector accounts for 20% of GDP; tourism (almost 6 million visitors in 1998), shipping services fees, and duties on consumer goods also generate revenue. In recent years, Gibraltar has seen major structural change from a public to a private sector economy, but changes in government spending still have a major impact on the level of employment.

GDP: purchasing power parity – $500 million (1997 est.)
GDP – per capita: purchasing power parity – $17,500 (1997 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.5% (1998)
Labor force: 14,800 (including non-Gibraltar laborers)
Labor force – by occupation: services 60%, industry 40%, agriculture NEGL%
Unemployment rate: 13.5% (1996)
revenues:  $307 million
expenditures:  $284 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY00/01 est.)
Industries: tourism, banking and finance, ship-building and repairing; support to large UK naval and air bases; tobacco, mineral water, beer, canned fish
Electricity – production: 95 million kWh (1999)
Electricity – production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1999)
Agriculture – products: none
Exports: $81.1 million (f.o.b., 1997)
Exports – commodities: (principally reexports) petroleum 51%, manufactured goods 41%, other 8%
Exports – partners: United Kingdom, Morocco, PortugalNetherlandsSpainUnited States, Germany
Imports: $492 million (c.i.f., 1997)
Imports – commodities: fuels, manufactured goods, and foodstuffs
Imports – partners: United Kingdom, Spain, Japan, Netherlands
Currency: Gibraltar pound (GIP)

Map of Gibraltar